We walk on it on the beaches, wiggle our bottoms as we dig our feet into the sand for pippies or eugaries to use for bait, and we catch worms that poke their heads out of the sand as waves retreat to the sea. When we walk on it dry in bare feet it squeaks. We have Stradbroke, Moreton, Bribie and Fraser Islands that are made of sand. On Moreton Island the sand dunes are 500 feet high.
Beach sand consists of white translucent quartz grains. Thin layers of black sand contain heavy minerals including Ilmenite from which Titanium is extracted and used in white paints. Quartz sand is the raw material for manufacturing glass, and crystals of quartz are used in jewellery, and in the electronics industry. The main use of quartz sand is in concrete construction.
Sand on the Queensland coast comes from the northern New South Wales (NSW) hinterland where sand from weathered sandstone is washed into the streams and transported to the sea by the Tweed, Richmond, Clarence, Macleay and Hunter rivers.
The prevailing south-east wind generates waves that intercept the beach at an acute angle and sand is slowly moved north from beach to beach, a process that is referred to as Longshore Drift.
Sand on the beaches was blown inland to form dunes that over the years built Stradbroke, Moreton and Bribie Islands of sand and on parts of the mainland such as Cooloola. The northern tip of the transported sand is Break Sea Spit, 20 Nautical miles north of Fraser Island and the location of the Break Sea Spit Lightshi.
E.G. Wilson, 13/06/2015
Rock climbers find the cliffs at Kangaroo Point ideal for developing their skills. The rock is irregularly jointed with overhanging blocks and is called the Brisbane Tuff. In Brisbane’s early days rock was quarried from the cliffs and trimmed to make kerbstones. The Tuff is an excellent building stone as it resists wear, is slip resistant, retains its cream, pink and green colours, is stain resistant, can be split along sedimentary planes. It was used in the construction of St John’s Cathedral, St Stephens Cathedral, Bardon House, All Hallows Gateway and the Brisbane Hospital wall.
The rock is a welded ignimbrite with the composition of Trachyte which is dominantly quartz. A volcanic complex encompassing the Glasshouse Mountains exploded 26 Million Years ago, and white hot incandescent ash was blown 65 km south and settled in layers that welded together.
W. H. Bowser & Lever started quarrying the tuff at the Brisbane Hospital site c1885 and in 1920 opened the Windsor Quarry on the corner of Newmarket Road. They were not able to buy all the allotments in the block. Mrs France would not sell, and so Bowsers quarried around the house. In 1941 they also opened the Webster Road, Somerset Hills, quarry. The Windsor Quarry was taken over by the Department of Defence and three huge tanks were constructed to hold bunkering oil for the navy. A pipeline was tunnelled under the road and linked to the wharves at Newstead. The tanks remained in operation until the last heavy oil burning naval vessel was pensioned off.
EG Wilson 23/06/2015
I could understand the expansion aspects of Plate Tectonics with the widening of the Atlantic Ocean about a central fault where basalt was extruded on to the ocean floor and thickened to form the mid-Atlantic Ridge. However, I could not understand “subduction” where the oceanic crust was supposed to disappear beneath the adjacent continents in the Pacific and other oceans as I could not see any evidence of structural compression in the adjacent continental crust; whereas when India impacted Asia it threw up the Himalayas, and Africa impacted Europe and formed the Alps.
I decided someone must have sorted this out in the last 30 years and found papers presented at a Conference in Cairns in 2008 “When did Plate Tectonics Begin”. Two rather surprising statements gained my attention; “Plate Tectonics is proven”, and “The Earth is the only planet on which Plate Tectonics exists.”. Concerning the first I have not found any hard facts on the Earth’s surface or on the sea floor to show that Plate Tectonics is proven, and the second statement seemed to be on a par with statements such as “The Universe Rotates about the Earth”, and that seemed a bit old fashioned these days.
My further reading gave no explanation of the basic assumption that underlies Plate Tectonics that the Earth has retained a more or less constant radius throughout time. I decided to gather all the factual information I could find and see what eventuated.
The assumption that the Earths radius has not changed is based on the Equivalence Principle derived from General Relativity. The Equivalence Principle has been challenged by satellite experiments.
GPS is based on Lorentzian Relativity and not General or Special Relativity, and experiments measuring the velocity of Light have found that it changes as the direction of measurement changes (Reg Cahill, Adelaide Uni. 2006). The measurement of most physical constants are accurate to 0.001 per cent whereas the Gravitational Constant shows a much greater variation of 0.05 per cent that is no better than that achieved by Cavendish in 1789. Zavier Borg of Blaze Laboratories considers that measurements of the Gravitational Constant have been accurate and measure gravity according to the velocity of the Earth through Space at the time of measurement.
The Earth takes a year to revolve around the Sun 30 km/sec and the Solar system revolves around the centre of the Galaxy (Sagittarius “A”) in 226 Ma at 250 km/sec. If the direction of rotation of the Earth is the same as that of the Galaxy, then the velocity of the Earth is 280 km/sec, and if the Earth is moving in the opposite direction the velocity is 220 km/sec. It follows that the Earth’s velocity increases for 113 Ma and decreases during the next 113 Ma. The relationship between Velocity, Mass and the Gravity is as follows; Mass increases as Velocity increases and Gravity decreases as Velocity increases. As Gravity decreases the Earth expands for 113 Ma and then contracts for the next 113 Ma. (Borg, 2008). Velocity is currently increasing and Gravity is decreasing therefore the Earth is expanding.